Building construction refers to the production activities in the implementation phase of project construction. It is the construction process of various buildings and the "construction site". The technology and methods used in the construction process have been explored and updated. This article summarizes the construction New crafts and new methods are for reference of partners.
1. Construction of masonry walls without frame holes Process method: first weld a T-shaped flat iron to the end of the scaffold steel pipe crossbar, and build the height to the erection point. The erection point should be selected at the intersection of the vertical gray seam and the horizontal seam; when supporting the scaffold, the end of the crossbar is T-shaped The flat iron pole can be placed on the wall, and mortar is not needed in the place where the flat iron is placed for easy disassembly and assembly.
2. The new technology of constructional column and ring beam without frame eye formwork support
Use pre-embedded Φ14 pair tension bolts (outside Φ15 PVC plastic pipe) in the "GZ" formwork section to fix the formwork, instead of the frame holes left in the masonry, and improve the overall masonry effect of the wall. Specific construction process operation: "GZ" formwork adopts 12mm thick plywood, which is integrated with three 50mm×80mm usual wooden flutes, that is, "GZ" uses a shaped formwork on each side. When supporting the mold, the tension bolts are pre-embedded in the "GZ" section, and each layer on the outer side of the end is locked with 4 sets of 50mm×80mm short wood squares, and the inner corners are supported by 100mm×100mm ordinary wood squares. This method should be used for brick-concrete structure "one" shape, L-shaped corner, and T-shaped corner.
Cut the corresponding length of PVC pipe according to the thickness of the wall, and set rubber plugs at both ends, so that the outer size of the two plugs is exactly the cross-sectional size of the concrete member. When supporting the formwork, put on the tie bolt rod to fix the formwork, and the concrete is poured. When removing the template, take out the rubber plug and fill the hole with 1:2 cement mortar and smooth it. Another method is to prefabricate a 5mm thick flat iron. One end of the flat iron is made into a 5cm long 90-degree hook. When supporting the wall formwork or scaffolding, the flat iron is inserted into the pre-buried brick seam of the wall. Play the same effect as the wall.
(1) The moulding process without eyelets requires less shaping moulds, high mould turnover rate, cost saving, and convenient template installation and disassembly.
(2) No eye is left on the masonry, which improves the overall strength of the wall.
(3) The concrete surface is flat, smooth and uniform in color, which effectively eliminates the common quality problems of concrete flowing and polluting the wall.
(4) The process of conventional frame eyes is omitted, labor costs are reduced, and conditions are created for shortening the construction period.
3. the application of frame beam, column, slab joint shaping template
Method 1: The joints of beams, columns and plates are supported by combined small steel formwork and special-shaped corner formwork, and sponge strips are placed at the joints of the formwork. The special-shaped corner template is customized according to the actual situation.
Method 2: Take bamboo plywood to make the template.
4. the concrete flanging of the bathroom and the overall construction method of cast-in-place concrete on the floor
In order to improve the waterproof performance of the toilet and bath room, the concrete flanging requires the use of hanging formwork and integral pouring of the floor concrete.
5. Application technology of sponge strip in formwork engineering
Process method: In the formwork construction, before installing the structural column and ring beam template of the brick-concrete structure, paste soft foam sponge strips or hard with double-sided adhesive on both sides of the structural column and the wall under the ring beam Sponge strips.
Advantages: It can effectively prevent wall pollution caused by overflow of concrete cement slurry.
6. the method of laying bricks on the top of the infill wall
Craftsmanship: Pre-cut the top bricks for masonry, so that the upper and lower contact surfaces of the inclined top bricks are flat, and when placed diagonally, the masonry forms an angle of 60 degrees with the horizontal plane.
Advantages: The upper and lower sides are both flat, ensuring that the thickness of the horizontal mortar joint of the masonry is about 10mm, avoiding the common quality problem of excessive mortar joint thickness. The top bricks form a 60-degree angle with the horizontal plane, and the masonry is denser, making the masonry better integrated. It avoids the common quality problem of the joints between the infill wall and the frame beam after plastering. The construction is convenient, the masonry is neat, and the visual quality is good.
7. the special-shaped bricks in the masonry adopt cutting or prefabrication construction methods
Craftsmanship: The seven-point head used in the wall is generally prefabricated by the brickyard or cut with a toothless saw on the construction site. The lowermost brick of the protruding part of the horse tooth brick is also cut into a 45-degree slope with a toothless saw.
Advantages: The bottom bricks of the protruding part of the horse teeth are cut into a 45-degree slope to facilitate concrete pouring and compactness, which improves the look and feel of the wall.
8. The application technology of the number bar in the masonry construction
Process method: The leather number rod is made of 3cm×5cm wood square planed, and there is an adjustable base under the leather number rod, and the leather number rod should be clearly marked and fixed with gray seams, bead positions, wall structure changes, etc. stable.
9. the door and window wooden bricks use precast concrete block construction method
The traditional method of fixing door and window frames is to pre-bury wooden bricks in the wall. Because the walls are mostly perforated bricks, the wooden bricks are not fixed firmly. Now they are replaced by precast concrete blocks. The cross-sectional size is the same as that of the blocks. When building, put the precast concrete blocks into the place where the wooden bricks were originally placed, and fix the door and window frames on the precast concrete.
10. Fixing method of the position of structural column reinforcement
A steel well-shaped fixing frame is installed on the top of the structural column. The well-shaped frame is fixed on the inner side of the steel frame together with the stirrup to ensure the spacing of the main reinforcement of the structural column. The tool-type well-shaped frame can be used for turnover, which can effectively prevent concrete Rebar displacement during pouring and vibrating. Reinforced Tic Tac Toe is made according to the size of the structural column. Φ8 or Φ10 steel bars are spot welded into Tic Tac Toe bracket with electric welder. The two sides of the tic-tac-toe are close to the brick wall, and the other two sides are close to the template. Make sure the size is accurate before installation. After the tic-tac-toe frame is placed, it is tied together with the stirrups on the structural column reinforcement, and finally the formwork is installed.
11. Anti-pollution practices of steel bar projects
Before pouring the concrete, put the PVC plastic pipe on the column reinforcement (the root of the pipe is the concrete pouring elevation), which can effectively prevent the cement grout from exposing the column reinforcement and facilitate the concrete construction.
12. Construction methods for retaining construction joints of stair slabs
Construction method: When supporting the stairs, according to the construction specifications, the stair step construction joints should be left within one-third of the span of the cast-in-place slab of the stairs. The clamped steel bars are not displaced and are perpendicular to the bottom mold. A steel or plastic block with the same thickness as the protective layer is placed under the main reinforcement of the bottom plate to ensure the thickness of the protective layer of the main reinforcement of the bottom plate.
13. Curing technology of cast-in-place column concrete
Process method: After the concrete is poured, effective maintenance measures should be taken in time according to the construction technical plan, and the concrete should be covered and moisturized within 12 hours. The concrete should be watered and cured. The number of watering should be able to keep the concrete in a moist state. The water used for mixing should be the same as that used for mixing. The cured concrete should be covered with a plastic sheet, and all exposed areas should be covered tightly, and there should be condensed water in the plastic sheet. When it is inconvenient to water the concrete surface or use plastic sheeting, the curing agent should be painted.
14. Stair stepping sun angle protection technology
Craftsmanship: The height and width of the stairs are constructed in strict accordance with the design requirements. The external corners of the stair steps are set with long finished copper or plastic corner strips, angle steel, and steel bars with a diameter of 6mm. When plastering, the corner strips are embedded in the surface layer, so that the corner strips are flat and consistent with the outer surface of the surface layer. The upper surface of the outer end of the step is provided with a veneer tile water retaining edge, and a drip groove is provided below.
15. The method of cutting the floor tiles on the floor drain to find slope compliance
Craftsmanship: When looking for a slope on the floor of the bathroom and kitchen, find the slope on all sides according to the design requirements of the floor drain. Divide the floor tile at the round or square floor drain into four, cut diagonally to find the slope Shop. The traditional practice of floor tiles at the floor drain is that the edges and corners of the whole tiles are prominent or recessed, which affects the look and feel and drainage quality. After the original construction method is improved, the drainage quality is improved, the slope falling is prevented, and the visual effect is increased.
16. The construction method of inlaid plastic strips on the top of the skirting board
(1) After the leveling layer is completed, clean the wall and sprinkle it with water.
(2) Pasting cakes on the wall and springing lines.
(3) Use 1:2 cement mortar or plastering plaster to affix plastic strips for hanging the line.
(4) Wipe the corner.
(5) Follow-up construction.
Advantages: The inner corner line adopts a new type of line, and the lines are clearly separated to reduce mutual pollution. It also avoids the trouble caused by the late decoration of the residential project where the dark corner line is completed.
17. Construction methods to prevent floor tiles from uplifting
Before paving the floor tiles, stick 8-10mm thick benzene board around the wall to form an elastic contact surface between the wall and the floor. The jointing material of floor tiles is made of cement and fly ash, the joint width is 3～5mm, and the ratio is 1:2.
18. indoor wall tiles sticking to the grassroots construction method
The ceramic tile is pasted to the base layer with a special plastering tool, and a wide 3mm flat groove is introduced or other effective measures are taken. Make the bonding layer stick firmly, prevent the tile from hollowing, and the effect is remarkable.
19. Leak prevention practices at the roots of water pipes
Technology: Before making the leveling layer on the floor of the kitchen and bathroom floor, make a fine stone concrete arc slope at the root of the pipe. Make a waterproof additional layer during waterproof construction, and the waterproof layer should be 20mm below the ground surface. The bottom of the PVC pipe should be made of plastic casing, the net height is 20mm, and the inner diameter is 25-40mm larger than the outer diameter of the drain pipe. It should be filled with sand and mortar, and the top should be smoothed and painted.
Advantages: The waterproof layer is directly at the position of the water blocking platform, which eliminates the common problems of tube root leakage and the tube root is beautiful and tidy.
20. New technology for reserved holes and plugging holes for the upper and lower water level risers
(1) Use iron plate to make simple hole plugging mold.
(2) Install the mold with the riser as the support.
(3) Pouring concrete with holes.
(4) Remove the mold, clean it, brush the oil, and store it.
Advantages: The mold is easy to manufacture, quick to install, stable, easy to dismantle, and can be used in turn. It can eliminate common problems of plugging and expanding molds and unequal quality of tube roots.
21. Fixing the wooden door frame of the rear plug
(1) The length and width dimensions of the plastering at the door must be accurate. According to the dimensions of the door and window openings after plastering, a gap of 1.5-2mm is reserved on each side to determine the size of the wooden door frame.
(2) Fix the wooden door frame upright and level it temporarily, and then use an impact drill to drill a Φ6 round hole vertically along the length of the wooden door frame. The depth of the round hole into the wall is not less than 70mm, and the number of fixed points should be in accordance with the specification.
(3) Cut the Φ6.5 steel bar into 105mm length, cut one end obliquely, then hammer into the wall with a hammer, and insert the other end into the surface of the wooden frame for 1~2mm.
(4) After filling the joint between the wooden frame and the wall with elastic material, it is sealed with a seam glue.
(1) Save the wood reserved for wooden bricks and improve the installation firmness of the wooden door frame.
(2) Ensure the smoothness of plastering on both sides of the wooden door frame.
(3) It avoids the pollution and damage caused by the plastering of the Xian'an wooden door frame, which is beneficial to the protection of the finished product.
22. Construction methods to prevent wall cracks
In order to prevent or alleviate the common quality problems of wall cracking, 60mm-thick horizontal and vertical cast-in-situ reinforced concrete tapes or under-window reinforcements and other construction technical measures are set at the elevation of the windowsill on the first floor and the top floor of the masonry, which can effectively prevent the wall crack.
23. cast-in-place large-area flat concrete vacuum water absorption construction technology
Process method: Pave suction pads on the concrete surface after pouring, vibrating and leveling, and start the vacuum equipment to suck free water from the concrete.
Advantages: Concrete vacuum water absorption is an advanced technology that speeds up the construction progress. While improving the strength of concrete, it shortens the construction period and speeds up the construction progress.
24. the masonry masonry adopts the method of scraping joints with pure slurry
The traditional wall sweeping process is omitted, and the method of jointing with the original slurry is adopted.
25. Construction method for reinforcement of concrete shear wall and column formwork
When the concrete shear wall and column formwork are supported, the formwork is reinforced by the pair of tension bolts with PVC pipes and plastic plugs, which effectively prevents the slurry from running out and leaking during the concrete pouring and vibrating process, and can be easily extracted Screw, improve the utilization rate of screw turnover. At the same time, a bell mouth is formed at the plug head, which facilitates the plugging of the bolt holes.
26. the post-planting method of pulling knots
In the masonry of the frame structure infill wall, the tie bars at the junction of the infill wall and the frame column are promoted to adopt the construction method of the post-planting method of structural glue, and the traditional method of pre-embedding iron and steel bars in the column is changed to ensure the tension The location and elevation of the knots are accurate.
27. Application technology of plastering plaster instead of cement mortar or mixed mortar in indoor plastering projects
Construction method: stucco plaster is divided into bottom stucco plaster and surface stucco gypsum. The bottom stucco plaster is used to make and level the plastered wall. The thickness depends on the flatness and verticality of the base layer. It can cover the base layer. The thin part is not less than 5mm. The operation method is the same as the cement mortar plastering method. It can also be leveled by mechanical stirring, spraying, then manual scraping and rubbing. The surface layer of plaster is used to cover the leveling layer, and a thin layer of steel trowel is used to make The sand pit on the surface of the leveling layer can be filled, and the surface can be smooth, and the thickness is about 1~2mm.
Advantages: The plastering layer of water-sand mortar or mixed mortar is prone to common quality problems such as hollowing and cracks during construction. At the same time, after delivery, due to the shrinkage and deformation of cement, cracks appear on the plastering surface. The stucco plaster has good characteristics such as early strength, fast hardening, fire resistance, heat preservation and heat insulation, and can automatically adjust indoor humidity, as well as fine and comfortable surface look and feel. Because of its micro-expansion and greater adhesion, it can effectively prevent plastering cracks, peeling and falling off. At the same time, it does not require high levels of plastering base, and there is no need to paint any interface agent or cement on the surface of the base. The slurry can be directly plastered.
28. New cold-drawn chrome plating process for stair railings
Process method: adopt the new cold-drawn chrome-plating process of stair railings, cold-drawn steel bars 4mm thicker than the original design steel bar diameter, and then chrome-plated.
Advantages: The stair railings are directly chrome-plated with round steel, which often has disadvantages such as rough surface, poor brightness and easy anti-rust. After adopting this process, the smoothness, brightness and rust resistance of the railing can be greatly improved.
29. the external corner of the plastering surface layer of the decoration engineering adopts the construction method of inlaid L-shaped external corner strips
Construction method: After finishing the plastering and leveling layer construction according to the design requirements, paste the L-shaped external corner strip to the external corner, and use the method of hanging the line to control and check the quality of the paste. The full length of the external corner strip is required to be fully glued. Intermittent pasting is allowed, and the surface layer is plastered with external corners instead of gray tendons, and smoothed with the sharp corners of the external corner strips. When plastering with plaster material, you can directly paste the L-shaped male corner line to the male corner, and then wipe the surface.
Classification of sun angle bars:
1. Plastic corner strips used for plastering walls, columns, beams, doors and windows;
2. External corner strips for ceramic tile walls.
Advantages: 1. After the external angle is inlaid with the external angle, the angle is straight, obvious, beautiful, and the overall effect is excellent.
2. In the construction operation, the sun angle line is used to replace the gray bar, which is more convenient for the operation of the operator and guarantees the control of the plastering quality.
3. It can effectively protect the positive angle.
30. the method of sticking wear-resistant copper strips on stair steps
Wear-resistant copper strips are attached to the outside corners of the stairs. The construction method is simple, beautiful and durable.
31. Construction method of scraping paint on wooden door leaf
(1) Clean up the grassroots
(2) Scraping oil
(3) Scrape, putty
(4) Polished and smooth
(6) tonic putty
(7) polished smooth and smooth
(8) Brushing and scraping
(9) fine grinding
(10) Brush the paint, and then use a large board to flatten and scrape according to the dry condition.
Advantages: The use of large-board scraping paint technology makes the paint surface smooth, bright, consistent in color, and thick in texture. At the same time, it also eliminates common quality problems such as brush patterns and flow.
32. Application technology of all-wire boom in installation engineering
Material features: The full-wire boom is a first-class round steel. The full-rod threaded in the factory, galvanized finished rod. At the construction site, it can be cut according to the length of use, and then one end of the screw rod is installed with a nut, a washer, an expansion tube and an internal expansion bolt to form a self-expanding anchor end, which plays the role of a suspension rod.
Advantages: The process is easy to operate on site, fast in installation, and good in quality after installation.
33. hot-dip galvanized pipe adopts groove connection technology
Process: Hot-dip galvanized pipes promote the groove connection technology. The technology uses high-quality rubber seals, and the joint is high-strength corrosion-resistant ductile iron. The life span exceeds the pipe itself. The flange of the groove joint is toothed with the groove circumference of the pipe end , And then lock with high-strength bolts.
Advantages: This technology has the advantages of easy operation, fast installation, no need for secondary galvanizing and rust removal, easy maintenance in the later stage, and saving 10%-20% of the total construction cost of traditional connection technology.
34. Application technology of centrifugal cast iron pipe in drainage pipeline
The centrifugal cast iron pipe has dense structure, thin pipe wall and light weight. The interface is connected by stainless steel clamp and rubber ring, which is convenient for loading and unloading. Compared with socket-type cast iron pipes and PVC pipes, it has the characteristics of easy maintenance, leak-proof joints, corrosion resistance, aging resistance, noise reduction and long service life.
Add: Taitou waterproof Industry Zone, Shouguang,Shandong ,China